First of all, who is and how does one become a Hawaiian National?

(1)  Born in the Kingdom of Hawai‘i or born abroad of parents who were subjects of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i.

(2)  Descendant of grandparents who were subjects of the Kingdom of Hawai
‘i, regardless of having the koko (Hawaiian blood) or not.

(3)  Being naturalized (oath of allegiance) as a subject of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i.  However, this has not been available since January 17, 1893, due to the absence of a viable (authorized and functioning) Kingdom of Hawai‘i government.

Hawaiian Nationals, please consider the following questions:

Do you believe the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i on January 17, 1893 was illegal?

Do you believe Queen Lili‘uokalani’s abdication of the throne on January 24, 1895 to the Republic of Hawai‘i, was made under duress and is not binding?

Do you believe the Annexation (July 7, 1898) of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i to the United States was made improperly and is not legitimate?

Do you believe the transition from Territory of Hawai‘i to State of Hawaii (Aug. 21, 1959) was improper and is not legitimate?

Do you believe, by virtue of the illegitimate acts above, the Kingdom of Hawai‘i continues to exist?

Do you believe you are a Hawaiian National?

Do you have allegiance to the Kingdom of Hawai‘i?
(Dual citizenship and allegiance is a viable option)

Do you believe in and advocate for Hawaiian Sovereignty?

Do you feel voting in the U.S. political process would compromise your beliefs in the above and would constitute collusion with the occupying powers?





Question:  What did our Kūpuna, Patriots, and Aloha ʻĀina do, what did our Ali‘i do, what did Queen Lili‘uokalani do, after the Overthrow and before Annexation?

Answer: They did everything they could to restore the Kingdom after the Overthrow and fought against Anexation to the U.S.

Question:  What did they do after Annexation?  Did they embrace the occupying power, did they stop caring and doing, did they fade away in silence?

Answer:  No, they continued to care for the People, they recognized the power of the vote as a means to benefit the People, and they engaged in political activism!



Queen Liliʻuokalani

Queen Liliʻuokalani (1838-1917) was the last sovereign of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.  Born Lydia Kamakaeha, she inherited the throne in 1891 after the death of her elder brother, King Kalākaua.  By the time she took the throne, a new Hawaiian constitution had removed much of the monarchy’s powers in favor of an elite class of businessmen and wealthy landowners.  When Liliʻuokalani acted to restore these powers, a U.S. military-backed coup deposed her in 1893 and formed a provisional government; Hawaiʻi was declared a republic in 1894.  Liliʻuokalani continued to appeal to U.S. President Grover Cleveland for reinstatement, without success.  The United States annexed Hawaiʻi in 1898.

Queen Liliʻuokalani directed James Kaulia and David Kalauokalani
to instruct the L
āhui to vote!
James Kaulia and David Kalauokalani 

Two organizations were formed shortly after the Overthow of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi in 1893, to fight against Annexation of Hawaiʻi by the U.S.  These organizations were named Hui Kālaiʻāina or Hawaiian Political Association and Hui Aloha ʻĀina or Hawaiian Patriotic League.  Together they created a Petition Against Annexation, commonly called the Kūʻe Petition today, that was signed by 39,000 individuals, the vast majority of the Native Hawaiian population.  

When Hawaiʻi was ultimately annexed to the U.S. the two organizations where concerned that both the Democratic Party and Republican Party were incapable of representing Native Hawaiians interest.  As such, they planned to join forces to create a new political party that would address Native Hawaiian issues and concerns.  With this in mind, members and leaders of the two organizations, including presidents David Kalauokalani (Hui Kālaiʻāina) and James Keauiluna Kaulia (Hui Aloha ʻĀina) visited with Queen Liliuʻokalani at Washington Place to seek her manaʻo on such a venture. This is the Aliʻi’s response:

          “Aloha to all of you: I did not think that you, the lāhui, still were thinking of
          me, since ten years has based since I became a Mother to you, the lāhui, and
          now the U.S. sits in power over me and over you, my dear lāhui. What has

          befallen us is very painful to me; however, it could not be prevented. My mind
          has been opened because of the unrestricted vote the U.S. has given to the lāhui
          Hawai‘i.  This is what I advise: that the lāhui, should look to the guidance of the
          leaders of the lāhui, Mr. Kaulia and Mr. Kalauokalani. A great responsibility has
          fallen upon them to look out for the welfare of the lāhui in accordance with the
          laws that the U.S. has handed down, so that the lāhui will receive the rights and
          benefits for our and future generations, and I will also receive that one benefit.
          We have no other direction left to pursue, except this unrestricted right to vote,

          given by the U.S. to you the lāhui, grasp it and hold on to it, it is up to you to
          make things right for all of us in the future. With these brief words, please
          excuse me, give my aloha to the lāhui, and aloha to you.”


James K. Kaulia answered on behalf of the those present, saying:


          “Your Majesty, on behalf of the representatives and Your lāhui, we reverently
          carry away with us the message of the Ali‘i, and we bind it to our hearts and the
          hearts of the lāhui, and these words what have been heard will become
          something by which Your lāhui will be led, for well-being and prosperity in the
          future, and for the benefit of the generations of  Your lāhui yet to come.”  

                    "The Ali'i's Voice before the Representatives of the Nation." 
                      From the Hawaiian Nationalist Newspaper - Ke Aloha 'Āina                                                            Honolulu, Vol. 6, No. 23, Friday June 9, 1900. Not in Print
                      Copy of original article in Hawaiian at:

                      English Translation:
                      "The Ali'i's Voice before the Representatives of the Nation." '
                      Ōiwi, A Native Hawaiian Journal 
                      Vol. 2 (2002) 127. Print                      

Historical Note: David Kalauokalani of Hui Kālaiʻāina or Hawaiian Political Association and James Kaulia of Hui Aloha ʻĀina or Hawaiian Patriotic League, joined forces after Annexation to create the Hawaiian Independent Party on June 7, 1900.  At this time both Hui Kālaiʻāina and Hui Aloha ʻĀina where dissolved.  The Hawaiian Independent Party was later renamed the Independent Home Rule Party on Nov. 11, 1900.  The Hawaiian Independent Party was subsequently dissolved in 1912. 

Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole

Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole (March 26, 1871 – January 7, 1922) was a prince of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi until it was overthrown by a coalition of American and European businessmen in 1893.  He later went on to become a representative in the Territory of Hawaiʻi as delegate to the United States Congress, and as such is the first Native Hawaiian and only person ever elected to that body who was born a royal.

In 1887 a bloodless coup imposed the Bayonet Constitution upon King Kalākaua, restricting not only the influence of the crown, but also the rights of the mostly Hawaiian subjects, or citizens.  In 1893 Queen Lili‘uokalani’s attempt to promulgate a new constitution to alleviate these problems lead to another coup, and a provisional government, presided over by Sanford Ballard Dole, was installed.  This in turn caused an investigation by James Henderson Blount who reported to President Grover Cleveland that the overthrow was illegal.  Cleveland then sent a new envoy to Honolulu, Albert Willis, who on December 18, 1893, on behalf of the president signed an agreement with Lili‘uokalani that she would be reinstated and that on her part she would grant amnesty to her opponents.  


Such an agreement between heads of state has the force of a treaty, and has to be carried out.  According to the concept of estoppel in international law if such an agreement for whatever reason is not implemented, anything that follows contrary to the agreement is null and void.  The Dole government refused to step down, Cleveland for a number of reasons was unable to fulfill his part, and instead of reaching a solution of the crisis, it deepened when on July 4, 1894, the Provisional Government mutated into the Republic of Hawaiʻi.  The Hawaiians, and other citizens of the kingdom, who were thwarted in their hope for restoration, waited and waited, but when nothing came forth, some of them finally took up arms and on January 6, 1895, began military action which is known as the Kaua Kūloko, the Civil War.  It lasted for a week.  The opponents of the Hawaiians won, partly at least because they were in the possession of state-of-the-art cannons (Krupp) purchased by Kalākaua in Vienna back in 1881.


A large number of Hawaiians were arrested including Kūhiō as well as several Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, British, Germans, and the American Charles Gulick, after whom Gulick Avenue is named.  The Queen was imprisoned as well, in ʻIolani Palace, and she was tried for misprision of treason in a court martial in the Throne Room.  She was sentenced to five years of hard labor and a substantial fine.  Dole later granted her an amnesty and the other prisoners were also released, Kūhiō after almost a year in jail. He left the Islands in frustration, went to South Africa, and participated in the Boer War on the British side against the Dutch Calvinist settlers. Eventually Kūhiō was persuaded to return to Honolulu.  


In 1902 there would be the election of delegate to Congress, an office held since 1900 by Lopaka Wilikoki, Robert Kalaniahiapo Wilcox of ‘Ao‘ao Homelula, the Homerule Party, who had organized the Wilcox Rebellion in 1889, and who had fought for Queen Lili‘uokalani in 1895.  The people around Governor Dole, the new masters of Hawai‘i, who had mutated from the ‘Ao‘ao Ho‘oma‘ema‘e, the Reform Party, into the Republican Party, were keenly aware of their small numbers and thus looked for a prominent personage as a candidate for this post.  Kūhiō on his part knew that the game of cards was stacked against the Hawaiians, in spite of the fact that they held a majority of the vote.  Delegate to Congress was the highest elective office and while its possibilities were limited since the delegate had no voting power, it was at least something.  


Kūhiō thus met with his brother, Prince David Kawānanakoa, and their reasoning ran approximately like this:  The governorship is in the hands of our opponents, the Calvinist annexationists who overthrew our Queen.  The governor, none other than Sanford B. Dole, who had officially headed the Overthrow, was appointed by President William McKinley.  The Legislature, dominated by Hawaiians, is constantly stymied by the governor’s veto power.  We are the ranking ali‘i, and if we run for different parties, they will elect one of us.  The Home Rule Party is little known in Washington, D.C., and a delegate from such an obscure entity could not achieve very much.  We thus have to become candidates for the mainstream parties, i.e. the Democrats and the Republicans. 


Kawānanakoa accordingly ran for the first and Kūhiō for the latter. Since Kūhiō won the race, the Republican Party now became a double-headed creature, with one wing represented by annexationists and the other by Hawaiian royalists.  The Democrats on the other hand, would gain power only in 1954, primarily on the basis of a coalition between John Burns and the veterans of the 442nd Regimental Combat Group.

. . . Kūhiō, while working together with the new establishment on the surface at least, did everything in his power to perpetuate important aspects of the monarchy.  In 1903, at midnight and at the statue of the founder king, he reactivated the Royal Order of Kamehameha, founded by Kamehameha V in 1865, and forbidden as a seditious organization by the Republic of Hawaiʻi.  And 15 years later, in 1918, he created the Honolulu Hawaiian Civic Club as an organization for the maka‘ainana, the Hawaiian people.


Most importantly, he helped establish the City and County of Honolulu as a counterforce to the Territory dominated by his old opponents.  The idea was simple. The position of the governor was not elective, but a mayor, the head of a county, would have to be elected by the people, and the people were dominated by Hawaiians.  Sure enough, the first two mayors, Joseph J. Fern (1909-1915, 1917-1920) and John C. Lane (1915-1917), were Hawaiian royalists.  And Mayor John H. Wilson (1920-1927, and serving two additional terms later) was the son of Lili‘uokalani’s marshal, i.e. chief of police.


"History Behind the Gallant Hawaiian Prince Kuhio, City & County of Honolulu and the Royal Hawaiian Band" Hawaii Reporter, (March 26, 2014) Online


SUMMARY:  Prince Kūhiō was heir to the throne, had it not been for the Overthrow, he would have been the King of Hawai‘i following Queen Lili‘uokalani.  Following the Overthrow he participated in military action to restore the Kingdom.  For this he was charged with treason and sentenced to death however, the sentence was commuted to imprisonment for one year.  Even after all of this, Prince Kūhiō understood the need for political activism to benefit the People.  Prince Kūhiō ran and was elected a delegate to the U.S. Congress as a Republican.  He served for 10 terms from 1903 to his death in 1922.  His political work for Native Hawaiians and all People included:  The Hawaiian Homes commission Act of 1921, price supports for Hawaiian sugar, appropriations for the leper colony at Kalaupapa, and increased funding for public schools.  

Robert William Kalanihiapo Wilcox

Robert William Kalanihiapo Wilcox (February 15, 1855 – October 23, 1903), nicknamed the Iron Duke of Hawaiʻi, was a native Hawaiian revolutionary soldier and politician.  He led armed uprisings against both the government of the Kingdom of Hawaii under King Kalākaua and the Republic of Hawaii under President Sanford Dole, what are now known as the Wilcox rebellions.  He was later elected the first delegate to the United States Congress for the Territory of Hawaii.

Robert William Kalanihiapo Wilcox (February 15, 1855 - October 23, 1903) was nicknamed the Iron Duke of Hawai‘i.

In 1888, the Reform Party (which became the Hawaii Republican Party after Anexation) took power in the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. Through what was called the Bayonet Constitution, they removed most political authority from the monarch, and placed income and property requirements on voters limiting the electorate to only wealthy Americans, Europeans, and a relatively few Native Hawaiians.

In 1889, Robert W. Wilcox led an armed insurrection against the so-called Reform Government, who two years earlier had imposed the “Bayonet Constitution” upon King Kalākaua. Wilcox intended to return rights to the monarchy and to Native Hawaiians.The attempt failed and he was tried for treason, but acquitted by a jury of Native Hawaiians who refused to convict him.

Following the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i in 1893, Wilcox led some three hundred armed men in counter-revolution to restore Liliʻuokalani to the thrown in 1894. This attempt failed he was tried for treason and sentenced to death with five others in 1895, however his sentence was commuted to 35 years in prison. He was pardoned by Sanford B. Dole, President of the Republic in 1898 as part of a pressure deal made with Lili’uokalani, that she abdicate the throne in exchange for the freedom and life of Wilcox and others who had been sentenced to death. As such, Wilcox was free once more after being in prison for nearly 3 years.

After his failed armed attempts to restore power and independence to the Kingdom, Wilcox focused on political activism to protect and enhance Native Hawaiian rights and opportunities. With Annexation to the U.S. in 1898, in 1900, Hawai‘i was allowed one non-voting representative to the U.S. Congress. Wilcox led the Home Rule Party, organized by former royalists, and was elected delegate in 1901.  For two years he fought for Hawaiian rights, successfully backing education or literacy as the qualification for voting rather than property, which the oligarchy favored.  When he died in late 1903, thousands joined the funeral procession of the famous “Iron Duke of Hawai‘i.

Alice Kamokilaikawai Campbell

Birth: March 17, 1884 Honolulu, Hawaii

Death: October 23, 1971 California

Senator Alice Kamokilaikawai Campbell or Kamokila as she was commonly known, was the daughter of Abigail and James Campbell.  Her father, a Scots-Irishman, came to the islands in the mid-nineteenth century and became one of Hawai'i's wealthiest landowners, sugar growers, and financiers.  Her mother, Abigail Kuaihelani Maipinepine Campbell, was descended from Hawai'i's ruling chiefs. Following the Overthrow of 1893 her mother was head of the Hui Aloha ʻĀina o nā Wāhine and a lead organizer in gathering the 1897 Kū‘ē petitions against U.S. annexation.  Her sister Abigail married Prince David Kawananakoa. By ancestry she was part of the exclusive worlds both of Caucasian wealth and of Hawaiian nobility.  After her father's death, she became a beneficiary of the Campbell Estate, one of the largest landed estates in Hawai‘i.


While in her mid-50s Kamokila decided to engage in political activism and served in the territorial Senate as the Democratic senator for Maui -Moloka'i from 1942 to 1946. In 1943 she advanced further politically and became Democratic national committeewoman. By the end of World War II Kamokila Campbell had established herself as prominent public and political figure in Hawai'i—by virtue of her wealth and family position, as well as her elected achievements. In 1945 she broke ranks with the other members of the legislature and was the lone legislator to vote against a resolution favoring statehood.  


In January of 1946, a U.S. Congressional Committee (Committee) held hearings over a number of days. Kamokila arranged to provide her testimony at ‘Iolani Palace on January 17, the 53rd anniversary of the illegal U.S.-aided overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom. The Committee agreed to devote a full day to her testimony. Before a crowd of over 600, Kamokila stated that she spoke "from the heart and soul of all Hawaii." She continued:


          I do not feel . . . we should forfeit the traditional rights and privileges of the
          natives of our islands for a mere thimbleful of votes in Congress, that we, the
          lovers of Hawaii from long association with it should sacrifice our birthright for
          the greed of alien desires to remain on our shores, that we should satisfy the
          thirst for power and control of some inflated industrialists and politicians who
          hide under the guise of friends of Hawaii, yet still keeping an eagle eye on the
          financial and political pressure button of subjugation over the people in general
          of these islands.

Kamokila connected the injustice of the overthrow to the inadequacy of reconciliation afforded by statehood. She advocated for Hawaiian self-governance and criticized the greed of the Big Five corporations (Alexander and Baldwin, Castle and Cook, Amfac, C. Brewer, and Theo H. Davies), which would greatly benefit from statehood.  Unlike most people at the time who had forgotten or purposefully pushed aside the decades-old problem of the illegal overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Kamokila insisted on keeping the overthrow in the conversation.  She connected the control imposed by the U.S. at that time to the greater problems Native Hawaiians would face under the increased control that statehood would bring to the already powerful Big Five.  She went on to add that Big Five pressure for statehood was so great that it was impossible for people to speak against statehood for fear of losing their jobs.  As a result, she claimed, there had never been any organized opposition to the statehood movement.

SUMMARY:  Kamokila Campbell, was born into affluence and Hawaiian nobility who used her status and political activism to give voice and strength to her people. She spoke out at a time when all others were silenced by the political and economic might of the Big Five.  In doing so, she is a vital link in the unbroken chain of Hawaiian patriots who have chosen not to forget the travesty and injustice of the Overthrow and advocate for the long-overdue reconciliation required.


*This biographical statement draws heavily on the research of Dr. Dean Saranillio. See resources section.- See more at: http://www.kamakakoi.com/hawaiianpatriots/kamokila.html#sthash.aGgyCQZ8.dpuf
JOHN S. WHITEHEAD The Anti-Statehood Movement and the Legacy of Alice Kamokila Campbell


The message here is that Hawaiian Nationals, Patriots, and Aloha ʻĀina vote!  Voting does not compromise your beliefs or position as a Hawaiian National, you are simply picking up and using a tool to benefit the People.

The above individuals are only a few of the many Hawaiian Nationals who engaged in political activism after the Overthrow and Annexation.  Queen Lili‘uokalani herself exhorted the Lāhui to vote!  James Kaulia and David Kalauokalani, who created the Kūʻē Petition, established a political party to address the needs of the People.

Indeed, many of the most ardent supporters and defenders of the Kingdom, such as Prince Kūhiō and Robert Wilcox, became political activist and held political office.  Not because they accepted what had happened and embraced the powers that be, but because they understood the vote and political process was one of the best ways to protect rights and seek benefits for the People.

Our kūpuna never allowed the wrongs and injustices of the oppressors to limit what they felt they should do to help the People.  They fought for the right to vote for the People, they encouraged the People to vote, and they ran for political office to represent the People.  

Our kūpuna engaged in the U.S. political process and voted as a means to an end, and that end was to benefit the People.  Indeed, their words and acts make it clear, that they believed voting was not only their right, but their kuleana.  Let us walk and follow in their footsteps.



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