Copyright © 2019 Aloha ʻĀina Party

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HISTORY

Political timeline of events leading up to and following the Overthrow including events leading to the establishment of the Aloha ʻĀina Party
1864 - Royal Order of Kamehameha Established

Order of Kamehameha Established:  Authorized by the 35th Article of the 1864 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i, King Kamehameha V established the Order of Kamehameha I by Royal Decree on April 11, 1865 at the ‘Iolani Palace. The Royal Decree was made with the endorsement of the King’s Privy Council of State and establishes the Order’s mission and authorizes the Order to carry out its kuleana, in perpetuity, as an institution of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i.

 

The mission of the Order is to cultivate and develop among the people the feelings of honour and loyalty to the Hawaiian Nation, and its institutions, and to confer honourary distinctions upon the people and foreigners who have or may render to the Hawaiian Nation important services.

1887 - Hawaiian League

Hawaiian League:  Lorrin Thurston was an attorney and grandson of Protestant missionaries to the Islands.  In 1887, he formed the Hawaiian League, a group of planters and businessmen, seeking to control the kingdom politically as well as economically.  Membership (probably never over 400, compared to the 40,000 Native Hawaiians in the kingdom) was predominantly American, including manhy missionary descendants.

1887 - Bayonet Constitution 

Stripping the monarchary of its powers and disinfranchising the People.

Bayonet Constitution (Constitution of 1887):  Sanford B. Dole called together a meeting of the Honolulu Rifles (a volunteer military company composed solely of Caucasian citizens of the Hawaiian Kingdom) and the Reform Party of the Hawaiian Kingdom Walter M. Gibson, Peter Cushman Jones, Lorrin Thurston created a list of demands for the King. They all decided that a new constitution should be written. Over less then a week, the new constitution was drafted by many lawyers including Thurston, Dole, William AnselKinney, William Owen Smith, George Norton Wilcox , and Edward Griffin Hitchcock. Most of these people were part of the Hawaiian League. Kalakaua signed the document on July 6th, 1887, stripping the King of most of his personal authority, empowering the legislature and cabinet of the government. It was known as the Bayonet Constitution because of the use of threat and force to gain King Kalakaua's cooperation. During this time period, bayonets were often used.The Bayonet Constitution stripped the power of King Kalakaua. It took away his right to act without the permission of the cabinet. His right to dismiss or choose cabinet members was turned over to the legislature. The Constitution also allowed American, Hawaiian, and European males to vote. Asians, who previously had the right to vote, were denied.

1887 - Hui Kālaiʻāina
(Hawaiian Political Party): 

Anti-annexation, pro Hawaiian independence organization

Hui Kālaiʻāina (Hawaiian Political Party):  Protests to the Bayonet Constitution gave rise to the first consciously Kanaka Maoli political organization, called Hui Kālaiʻāina.  D. H. Nāhinu of Hoʻokena, island of Hawaiʻi, a former representative in the House of Nobles, galvanized Kānaka ‘Ōiwi to establish their own political institution.  Hui Kālaiʻāina was formed to support restoration of the Hawaiian Kingdom Constitution of 1864. 

1888 - John Ailuene (Edwin) Bush 

In 1888, John Ailuene (Edwin) Bush was elected the first president of the Hui Kālaiʻāina.  Publisher of two Hawaiian language newspapers Ka Leo o ka Lāhui ("the voice of the nation" in Hawaiian) and Ka Oiaio ("the truth").  Ka Leo o ka Lāhui, with a circulation of 5000, was the leading Hawaiian language newspaper of the 1890s (1889-1896).  A prominent member of Kalākaua's cabinet, his previous positions included:  Royal Governor of Kauai - Jan. 4, 1877; Privy Council - Sept. 1, 1878; House of Nobles - 24, 1880; Minister of the Interior - Aug. 14, 1880; and Minister of Finance on May 20, 1882.

1888 - Reform Party

With the Bayonet Constitution in place, the Reform Party became the dominant political party in the Kingdom of Hawai‘i.

The Reform Party was first named the Missionary Party and formed by descendants of Protestant missionaries that came to Hawaii from New England.  The Reform/Missionary Party merged with native Hawaiian members of the Home Rule Party led by Prince Kuhio in 1902 to form the Hawaii Republican Party.  The fused Republican Party would lead the so-called Haole-Hawaiian Alliance with uninterrupted Legislative majorities until Democrats took control of the Legislature in 1954.
1890 - National Reform Party
National Reform Party:  Hui Kālaiʻāina (Hawaiian Political Party) joined forces with the Mechanics' and Workingmen's Political Protective Union to run candidates friendly to labor and supportive of revision to the constitution.  Together they formed the National Reform Party.  The National Reform Party was established in opposition to the Reform Party.  It was party that supported Queen Liliʻuokalani and native Hawaiians.  
1891 - Death of King Kalākaua, and rise of Queen  Lili'uokalani

Death of Kalākaua:  King Kalākaua dies and sister, Liliʻuokalani, assumes the throne.  Since the establishment of the Bayonet Constitution in 1887, Kānaka ‘Ōiwi continually advocated for a new constitution.  When Liliʻuokalani, took office in January 1891, she too was repeatedly pressed to rectify the Bayonet Constitution.  Liliʻuokalani could not ignore the petitions, since two-thirds of the registered voters of the Islands had signed them.

1893 - Overthrow

Illegal overthrow of the legetimate
Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.

Overthrow:  Queen Liliʻuokalani attempts to implement a new constitution that would restore power to the throne and restore the voting rights of the Hawaiian people.  However, Queen Lili'uokalani is overthrown by a relatively small group of men, most of them American by birth or heritage, who conspired with U.S. Minister John L. Stevens, who ordered soldiers on shore from the USS Boston to protect them. 

 

The usurpers, accompanied by the soldiers, then occupied Aliʻiolani Hale, a government building, and declared themselves to be the Provisional Government of Hawaiʻi.  In his role as the minister of the United States, Stevens immediately recognized them as the new legitimate government of Hawai‘i.  To which the Provisional Government immediately proposed a Treaty of Annexation to the U.S.

1893 - Order of Kamehameha
Goes Underground.

 

Following the illegal overthrow of Queen Lili‘uokalani and the Kingdom in 1893, the Order was considered a threat and suppressed by the Provisional Government and subsequent Republic of Hawai‘i. As a result, the Order was forced to exist as a secret underground society.

1893 - Hui Hawaiʻi Aloha ʻĀina (Men & Woment) - Hawaiian Patriotic League:

Hui Aloha ʻĀina for men, and Hui Aloha ʻĀina for women, were established just after the Overthrow of t1893, expressly to support the Queen and to oppose U.S. annexation.

1893 - Blont Report -
Illegal Overthrow and Act of War

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Blont Report - Illegal Overthrow and Act of War:  In large part, as a result of meetings, presentations, letters, and petitions of protest organized by Hui Hawaiʻi Aloha ʻĀina, newly elected President Grover Cleveland rejected the request of the Provisional Government to annex Hawaiʻi.  Subsequently, Commissioner James Blount was sent to Hawai‘i to investigate. 

After reviewing Blount's report, President Cleveland announced his opinion that the Provisional Government had acted illegally.  In fact, he said, “the provisional government owes its existence to an armed invasion by the United States,” and further, “By an act of war, committed with the participation of a diplomatic representative of the United States and without authority of Congress, the Government of a feeble but friendly and confiding people has been overthrown”.  Consequently, he condemned the actions of John L. Stevens, and asked for his resignation, withdrew the Provisional Governement’s Annexation Treaty, and supported the restoration of Queen Liliʻuokalani to the throne.  However, he was not able to persuade Congress to support restoring the Queen. 

 

The Blount Report is the popular name given to the part of the 1893 United States House of Representatives Foreign Relations Committee Report regarding the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. The report was conducted by U.S. Commissioner James H. Blount, appointed by U.S. PresidentGrover Cleveland to investigate the events surrounding the January 1893 overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii.

 

The Blount Report "first provided evidence that officially identified the United States' complicity in the lawless overthrow of the lawful, peaceful government of Hawaii."[1] Blount concluded that U.S. Minister to Hawaii John L. Stevens had carried out unauthorized partisan activities, including the landing of U.S. Marines under a false or exaggerated pretext, to support the anti-royalist conspirators; that these actions were instrumental to the success of the revolution; and that the revolution was carried out against the wishes of a majority of the population of Hawaii.[2]

The Blount Report was followed in 1894 by the Morgan Report, which contradicted Blount's report by concluding that all participants except for QueenLiliʻuokalani were "not guilty".[3]:648

1894 - Republic of Hawai ʻi

Traditional Hawaiian Master Tattooist and Cultural Practitioner

Republic of Hawai‘i:  When Cleveland withdrew the Provisional Government’s Annexation Treaty, the Provisional Government acted to establish a permanent government, the Republic of Hawai‘i, with Stanford Dole as its president.  This was done to legitimize their power and their control over the Hawaii’s resources.

In early 1894, they declared their plans for a constitutional convention to be held in May.  They appointed 19 delegates from among themselves—to the convention, and called for 18 more delegates to be chosen by popular election.  But in order for people to vote in this election, they would first have to sign the oath of loyalty to the Provisional Government, promising they would “oppose any attempt to re-establish monarchical government in any form in the Hawaiian Islands.” The overwhelming majority of Kānaka Maoli refused to sign such an oath, and thus boycotted the constitutional convention.  Only about 3,000 men, mostly of foreign birth, signed the oath and voted in the.  In contrast, an estimated 5,000 to 7,000 people showed up at Place Square to protest the Republic’s formation.

In part due to the War of 1895, U.S. Minister Albert Willis recognized the Republic of Hawaiʻi as the legitimate government of Hawai‘i, with its constitution that claimed all the kingdom and crown lands and all the natural resources of Hawaiʻi

1894 - Arms Purchase

Traditional Hawaiian Master Tattooist and Cultural Practitioner

Arms Purchase:  With the establishment of the Republic of Hawai‘i and its recognition by the United States, poʻe aloha ʻāina began to despair of diplomatic solutions and many believed the only viable option left was armed takeover of the government.   In October 1894, arms were purchased in San Francisco, and shipped to Oʻahu on the schooner Wahlberg.  The steamer Waimanalo received the arms offshore, however, the Republic of Hawai‘i learned of the plans.  On December 8, 1894, the Republic arrested John Ailuene Bush and Joseph Nāwahī.  Both were leaders of Hui Aloha ʻĀina. Bush was also editor of Ka Oiaio and Ka Leo o ka Lahui. 

1895 - Wilcox Counter-Revolution

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Following the overthrow of Queen Lili‘uokalani in January 1893, there were plots to return the queen to the throne. Wilcox’s third uprising began on January 6, 1895. In an exchange of shots in the night at Diamond Head, Charles L. Carter was killed—the only death during the insurrection but shocking to the public.

1895 - Put Under House Arrest

Lili'uokalani is arrested and accused of plotting an aborted attempt (Wilcox Counter-Revolution) to restore herself to the throne. 

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1896 - Lili'uokalani is Released

Lili'uokalani is released from Iolani Palace and goes to Washington to ask President Cleveland for help

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1897-1898 - Petition Against Annexation
(aka Ku‘e Petition)

Hui Kālaiʻāina and Hui Aloha ʻĀina collaborated to facilitate petitions against the annexation of Hawai‘i by the U.S.

The Hui Aloha ʻĀina for Women, the Hui Aloha ʻĀina for Men, and the Hui Kālaiʻāina formed a coalition to oppose the treaty. Together, these three organizations represented a majority of the Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiians).  The Kanaka Maoli believed that the American government was committed to their stated principles of justice and of government of the people, by the people, and for the people. They believed that once the U.S. President and members of Congress saw that the great majority of Hawaiian citizens opposed the annexation, the principles of fairness would prevail, that is, their Native government would be restored. The three huis therefore began to organize mass petition drives. The heading on Hui Aloha ʻĀina's petition read: PALAPALA HOOPII KUE HOOHUI AINA, Petition Protesting Annexation.

07/04/1898 - Hawai‘i Annexation by U.S.

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Hawai‘i Annexation by U.S.: This same year, the peoples of Cuba and the Philippines were fighting wars of independence against Spain. The United States also declared war on Spain after the U.S. warship, the Maine was blown up in a harbor in Cuba. The reason that the Maine was even in Cuba is questionable, since the U.S. had not been involved until it involved itself by sending the ship there. Be that as it may, the United States was at war. Suddenly, the empire-builders of the United States were saying that they needed to send military troops on ships to the Philippines to fight Spain. For this, they said they needed Hawaiʻi. In the midst of the fever of war, a Joint Resolution of Congress called the Newlands Resolution passed by a simple majority of each house, making Hawaiʻi a territory of the United States. That was in July of 1898; the flag of the United States was hoisted over Hawaiʻi on August 12th.

 

 

1900 - Hawai'i Become a U.S. Territory

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Following the overthrow of Queen Lili‘uokalani in January 1893, there were plots to return the queen to the throne. Wilcox’s third uprising began on January 6, 1895. In an exchange of shots in the night at Diamond Head, Charles L. Carter was killed—the only death during the insurrection but shocking to the public.

1900 - Home Rule Party

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Home Rule Party:  Following the U.S. Annexation of Hawaii, Kanaka Maoli continued to protest and advocate against Annexation.  The Hui Kālaiʻāina focused on undoing Annexation, and restore the Native government.  While Hui Aloha ʻĀina worked towards securing full civil and political rights for Hawaiian citizens in the U.S. territorial system.  In 1900 Robert Wilcox helped the two huis band together to form one political organization called the Hawaiian Independent Party (later called the Home Rule Party of Hawai‘i) that consisted of former anti-annexation royalists.  David Kalauokalani (previous President of Hui Kālaiʻāina) was elected President, and James Kaulia (previous President of Hui Aloha ʻĀina) was elected Vice-President.  The Home Rule Party elected Robert Kalanihiapo Wilcox as (non-voting) Delegate to the U.S. Congress from 1900 to 1903.

 

 

Historical Notes:
James Keauiluna Kaulia (2nd president of Hui Aloha Aina after Joseph Kahoʻoluhi Nāwahīokalaniʻōpuʻu) continued his work for his nation until the day of his death at age 41, in 1902. On that Sunday, he spent the morning at the jail house trying to help prisoners assert their rights. After church and lunch, he lay down for a nap from which he never woke up. He died of heart failure.

 

David Kalauokalani (2nd president of Hui Kālaiʻāina after John Ailuene (Edwin) Bush) lived until 1915, also serving his people all of his life. He served as a senator in the territorial legislature, and as a member of the Board of Health. His son, also named David, became the first clerk of the City and County of Honolulu.

1903 - Royal Order of Kamehameha Emerges

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After Hawai‘i became a territory of the United States in 1898, Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole, lead a torchlight ceremony around the statue of Kamehameha (Oahu) and publicly declared the restoration (return to public light) of the Order in 1903. As the last surviving designated heir to the throne, had it not been for the overthrow, Prince Kūhiō would have succeeded Queen Lili‘uokalani as King of Hawai‘i and Grand Master of the Order. As such, Prince Kūhiō possessed the mana (authority and power) to reorganize and perpetuate the Royal Order of Kamehameha I as it exists today.

Today, the Order proclaims the continued existence of the Hawaiian Nation and awaits the restoration of its governing body. In the interim, the Order promotes sustaining the laws of the land to prevent anarchy and asserts its continuing kuleana to support and uplift the Nation and its people.

1917 - Passing of a Queen

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Hawai‘i lost its last ruling monarch on November 11, 1917, when Lili‘uokalani died of a stroke at the age of 79 at her Washington Place home. At midnight, the “Royal Rain” fell lightly on the procession as her body was taken from Washington Place to the Throne Room of ‘Iolani Palace where she lay in state. When the procession arrived at ‘Iolani Palace, there was a rumble of intermittent thunder that was looked upon as a good ho‘ailona or omen. At midnight of the following day, her body, preceded by the flaming torch (the emblem of the Kalākaua Dynasty) and sacred kahili, was taken to Kawaiaha‘o Church where she lay in state for the next seven days. Her remains were then taken in a procession along King Street and up Nu‘uanu Avenue and placed in the Royal Mausoleum at Mauna ‘Ala.

1921 - Hawaiian Homes Commission Act

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After Hawai‘i became a territory of the United States in 1898, Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana‘ole, lead a torchlight ceremony around the statue of Kamehameha (Oahu) and publicly declared the restoration (return to public light) of the Order in 1903. As the last surviving designated heir to the throne, had it not been for the overthrow, Prince Kūhiō would have succeeded Queen Lili‘uokalani as King of Hawai‘i and Grand Master of the Order. As such, Prince Kūhiō possessed the mana (authority and power) to reorganize and perpetuate the Royal Order of Kamehameha I as it exists today.

Today, the Order proclaims the continued existence of the Hawaiian Nation and awaits the restoration of its governing body. In the interim, the Order promotes sustaining the laws of the land to prevent anarchy and asserts its continuing kuleana to support and uplift the Nation and its people.

1959 - Hawai‘i Becomes A State

Hawaii became the 50th state on Aug. 21, 1959
United States claims Hawai`i as a state of the union after illegal "plebiscite" vote is held, which does not offer the option of independence, as required by international law

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1978 - Office of Hawaiian Affairs

Office of Hawaiian Affairs created in state Constitutional Convention

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1993 - Applogy Bill

United States apologizes for the illegal overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai`i, recognizes the inherent sovereignty and right of self-determination of the Kanaka Maoli people

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2014-2015 - The Mauna Kea Crisis

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The planned building of the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope) with initial construction on Mauna Kea, one of the most sacred sites for Native Hawaiians and all polynesians, acted to galvinice Native Hawaiians and many parts of the larger community to rise up in protest and to advocate against the TMT.  There is no other time in the history of Hawai'i where Native Hawaiians untited and advocated for a cause since at this level and intensity since the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii.

2015 - Royal Order of Kamehameha Endorses and Authorizes the Establishment of a Political Institution

The genesis of the Aloha ʻĀina Party began within the Royal Order of Kamehameha, Heiau O Māmalahoa, moku o Hilo, Puna, Hamakua, and Ka‘u (Order). 

Beginning in 2009, the Order discussed the need for a political party that would address the concerns of Kānaka ‘Oiwi, especially in the area of sovereignty.  By 2015 the political party concept evolved from a Kānaka ‘Oiwi issue driven party to a viable third party option for all of Hawai'i.  Due in part to the Mauna Kea Crises of 2014- 2015, and the subsequent heightened consciousness, mobilization, activism, and empowerment of Kānaka ‘Oiwi.  It was decided that this was the time to launch the political party.  

It was decided that the new political party would be called the Aloha ʻĀina Party to honor Hui Kālaiʻāina and Hui Aloha ʻĀina (both men and women) which fought against the annexation of Hawaiʻi to the U.S.  The name was also chosen to honor all of the kūpuna (nearly 40,000) who signed the Anti-Annexation Petition (aka Kūʻē Petition) of 1897. 

 

Although endorsed and authorized by the Order, it was decided that the Aloha ʻĀina Party would not remain an Order initiative, and that it would move forward separate and distinct from the Order.  As such the establishment of the Aloha ʻĀina Party was taken up by individual members of the Order who rose to the occasion. Though many members of the Order (both men and women) as well as individuals from the community were instrumental in the establishment of the Aloha ʻĀina Party, Desmon Haumea, Pua Ishibashi, and Donald Kaulia, are recognized as the founding members of the Aloha ʻĀina Party.

2015 - Aloha ʻĀina Party Established

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Establishment of the Aloha ʻĀina Party:  Establishment of the Aloha ʻĀina Party was taken up by individual members of the Order who rose to the occasion. Though many members of the Order (both men and women) as well as individuals from the community were instrumental in the establishment of the Aloha ʻĀina Party, Desmon Haumea, Pua Ishibashi, and Donald Kaulia, are recognized as the founding members of the Aloha ʻĀina Party. 

 

Genealogical Connections:  
Hui Kālaiʻāina was established by D. H. Nāhinu of Hoʻokena, Kona, Moku O Keawe.
Hui Aloha ʻĀina was established by Joseph Kahoʻoluhi Nāwahīokalaniʻōpuʻu of Kaimū, Puna, Moku O Keawe.
James Keauiluna Kaulia, second president of Hui Aloha ʻĀina, was from Waiohinu, Ka'u, Moku O Keawe.
The three founding members of the Aloha ʻĀina Party are descendents of Moku O Keawe.
Don Kaulia, one of the founding members of the AAP, is a great, great, grandnephew of James Kaulia.
Pua Ishibashi, one of the founding members of the AAP, is the great, great, grandnephew of William Kaulia, brother to James.
The three founding members of the AAP are members of the Royal Order of Kamehameha that honors Kamehameha I of Moku O Keawe.

NOTE:

Note:  Moʻoaupuni - Hawaiian Political History, available here.

You may be interested in our "Should Hawaiian Nationals Vote?" page available here.

KE AO HOU - A NEW DAWN